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Abstract

Petai (Parkia speciosa) merupakan salah satu jenis makanan yang memiliki ciri khas rasa yang unik serta nutrisi yang melimpah. Karakteristik tersebut membuat petai berpotensi untuk diolah menjadi sayuran eksotis dengan sasaran pasar nasional maupun internasional. Meskipun begitu, seperti halnya sayuran lain, kualitas petai sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan. Salah satu solusi untuk penyimpanan petai adalah dengan proses pengeringan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pra-perlakuan blansing terhadap kualitas fisik petai hasil pengeringan tipe beku (freeze-drying). Dua variasi jenis blansing, yaitu blansing dengan air panas (HWB) dan blansing dengan uap panas (SB) dilakukan sebelum proses pengeringan. Selain itu, pengeringan tipe cabinet juga dilakukan sebagai pembandingan. Kualitas yang diukur pada penelitian ini meliputi karakteristik pengeringan, kadar air, susut bobot, shrinkage ratio, kekerasan bahan, warna, dan kandungan klorofil. Pengering beku yang digunakan pada penelitian ini ialah pengering hasil rancangan sendiri yang berdimensi total 0,5 x 0,7 x 1,0 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik penurunan kadar air pada proses pengeringan beku untuk petai secara baik dideskripsikan dengan model kinetika orde satu (R2 > 0,95; RMSE < 0,1). Kadar air akhir terendah didapatkan dari pengeringan beku, dengan rentang kadar air 2 – 3 % w.b. Pengeringan beku dapat mengurangi resiko discoloration pada petai, dibandingkan dengan pengering tipe cabinet. Pra-perlakuan blansing terbukti dapat membantu meningkatkan laju pengeringan sehingga pengeringan berlangsung lebih cepat, dan kandungan klorofil didalam petai dapat terjaga lebih baik.

Keywords

kinetika pengeringan kualitas fisik pengering beku petai pra-perlakuan blansing

Article Details

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